Talons Philosophy

An Open Online Highschool Philosophy Course


Phil’s TIME off ;)

For my metaphysics post I talked a little about time, and since I was away on vacation I though it would fit perfectly. My three questions concept of…

  1. what is time?
  2. what is cyclical time?
  3. what is linear time? 

As you read this imagine yourself landing in Punta Cana after a long flight, the air is fresh and crisp. The weather was better than expected sunny with just the right breeze, as you got on to the bus that toke you from the airport to the hotel you saw a forest of green and how the rural area looked like. When you got to the hotel (brand new btw) drinks greeted you with warm welcomes, thats when you knew it was the vacation you were in need of. The next day you wake up just in time before breakfast ended, coffee and some nice muffin or omelette (whatever you want), as you ate the sun was out and was a perfect day for the beach or tanning day. Well ladies and gents, that was not exactly my vacation:( it was sunny 2 out of the 7 days I was there. But back to Phil’s day off, we need to answer the three questions.

What is time?

My time in Punta Cana I got to understand how it’s really like for different countries, cultures etc. Being 4 hours early it made everything felt like it went faster even through I woke up the same time I’d normal do in Vancouver on weekends, it didn’t really answer my question of what is time. But one thing that I thought about (related to question) is how much they treasure the moment, they knew how important every minute was. Both those who worked in the hotel and people I saw in the cities showed how they aren’t really scared to seize the day, really.

What is Cyclical Time?

Waking up everyday, getting breakfast, doing an activity in the afternoon, dinner then drinks really felt like a cycle while I was there. It was kind of the same routine every night, but a little different. Everyday felt like a repeat of the events that happen since the first day I got there, because life was quite different in Vancouver compare to Punta Cana (eating 3 times a day etc) it felt like something we had to do. Once we did activities it felt like time kind of kept going and didn’t stop, during that time was continuos.

What is Linear Time? 

During the whole trip I didn’t really feel that time was Linear, until the last day where I finally notice that my trip came to an end. It made me remember that our adventures started on a certain day and will come to an end. Therefore it did kind of answer that question but not in a way where I feel like time is always Linear, this is because I believe their are certain events in life where it is Linear and other situation is Cyclical time.

In conclusion my Phil’s day off didn’t answer all the questions that I had but it did answer most of them, the ones related to Cyclical and Linear was more easily to conclude compare to the question of what is time, since there are so many possible answer depending on person/culture. Some believed that time is control by human while others disagree, therefore my trip there was quite hard to pinpoint an exact answer to it. But other than not being to answer that question my trip there was delightful, it allowed me to see what it was like to live in a place like Punta Cana/Dominican Republic, it showed me the importance of saving and using every moment of our lives not giving a dam really (to a certain point).

PS. i still don’t know if this make sense or if I did it right, but there isn’t a right or wrong in philosophy right??????



it was a better TIME…

Cyclical is defined as occurring in cycles or recurrent, while Linear means extending along a straight line, and processing from one stage to another. So..what does it mean when we talk about time being cyclical or linear? I mean the clock does go round and not straight. For this project I’m going to break down the big question that a lot or most people have, is TIME LINEAR OR CYCLICAL?

One of the easier question to break down first is what is time? Time is a measurement that we use everyday to calculate events, it allows people to grow old throughout the years rather than getting younger

                     Linear time, Cyclical time

. Like many scientist including Albert Einstein the Big Bang was the beginning of time. Einstein also said “time is relative,” he said that the faster  we moved the slower time will pass, and that in our galaxies time vary. Time for a fact is always going forward and never in reverse since it’s a direction, and still to this day the problem is still unsolved in physics. One way to explain why time can’t go backwards is entropy, the definition for entropy is a law that states nothing ever decreases. Therefore if milk is spilled or wood was used make a fire it can never go back to its original states, which means that entropy can go forward or stay the same, but can never decreases. Since time has a beginning (Big Bang) will time ever end? The pros in life said that time will end when another big event or rip like the (BB), but we can’t be to sure about it. The pros said that time was created by the BB but we have philosophers like Aristotle who believed that time didn’t have a beginning, because when or where we start there is always an imagination of the earlier time. Augustine had similar philosophical inquires like Aristotle but believed that the “universe was made with time and not in time”, this kind of touches on the fact that he to believe time was there when the universe was created, and not the other way around.

On to the next question where it’s not as easy to answer…what does it mean when time is cyclical? When we watch movies or an episode of a cartoon we often see a forward/fast timed of a sunset and a sunrise, that event is consider a short cyclical pattern. Events like sunset/sunrise allows us to measure time even better we can find out growing seasons when to sleep and when to wake up, most people would consider time as cyclical because of these patterns. But not every culture, country and person believes that time in cyclical its been noted that cyclical time depends on the culture. Places like China, Africa and Native American see time as cyclical rather than linear because they believe time controls their lives, which makes sense, since those countries are more devoted on working when it’s morning and sleeping when its dark. They thought that their lives didn’t control time and that they were to adapt to the harmony of the cyclical time. So if cyclical time is describing time being a cycle occurring again does that mean we are just living in a loop? No, we do relive certain events like waking up going to school or work etc but each of those events are different.

So if cyclical means routine/cycle linear must mean straight/continuing? The answer to that question is correct, the definition of linear time is that it keeps going straight with no ends and no repeats or cycles. Some philosophers who were believers that time is linear include: Kant, Descartes, Newton, Locke etc. Linear time was quite different compare to cyclical time, because linear was more based on math and science, whereas cyclical was based more on culture and beliefs. Those who agree with linear time are said to believe that time is continuous without an ending, therefore they need to make every moment count. Linear time is events with a beginning (birth) and end (death), it has three steps Past, Present and Future

In conclusion our definition of time could be similar but if we want to pick a side (Cyclical or Linear) it

would be rather hard and confusing because  I feel for both, because we don’t live in a cycle everyday but not everyday is the same and it will come to an end one day.

PS. i feel like i did this wrong but oh well….

PPS. for all those crazy document lovers, here is one for you.. (click the word here)



Epistemology, knowledge, chocolate cover almonds…

Knowledge is a weapon that everyone cares, its something that can’t be fully explained by science. Everyone has a different view on knowledge either on what it means or where it comes from. For my epistemology midterm we had to discuss/blog about knowledge, I choose to topic about where knowledge comes from. During the first day of our assignment I didn’t know exactly where knowledge came from, all I knew was that experience played a big important part in it. But through out our class discussions I was able to come up with my belief about where knowledge comes from, like some people I do believe that we are born with certain type of knowledge aka our instincts. In this situation I believe that instincts is a kind of knowledge, and if you continue to read further I will TRY to explain…

p1: we are born with certain instincts (communication, senses etc) which can be the potential to learn new knowledge.

p2: through experiences we are able to develop/change our instincts and create knowledge.

conclusion: we are born with certain innate knowledge, that can be further develop and evolved by our experiences as we grow.


Instincts can be defined as our five senses smell, touch, hear, sight and taste; from those five senses we are able to gain different kinds of knowledge. In this case instincts to me is a “baby” step of knowledge, I believe that we are born with instincts that leads us to learn more. All babies are born with the instinct to stay alive, a study held by Yale show that a baby is able to differentiate between good or bad. They were shown a video with two different colour spoons, one (red) helped another climb a hill and the other (purple) delay the person from climbing up. After the video was shown the babies (6 and 10 month-old) had a stronger preference for the “good” spoon. For some people the experiment can be consider knowledge through experience of watching something, but I personally consider that to be an instinct of survival, because the babies had to sense which of the spoon gave the “trusting vibes”. And from instincts like survival and our five senses we are able to grow and develop, continuing the baby example, the baby now knows that they need to form a bond with someone who they feel trust and love from. They know that as soon as the are out of the womb they need to depend on someone that they feel safe in order to survive.


Experiences is something that allows us to grow and learn from, experiences like breakups or relationships can help us gain new knowledge that we didn’t know before. Knowledge gain from experiences can change through out the years, it can be affected by age, gender, generation etc. We are able to create new knowledge from the experiences we make from our five senses, for example a person can gain knowledge from touching a key on a piano, hearing the note or seeing the music. We gain knowledge about feelings from the experiences we go through, we aren’t able to know what the sound of a piano is like from reading a textbook even when one learn to read notes we are going through the experiences of learning (explanations and doing) it rather than rationally discuss about it.


Knowledge…where does it come from? Well, to me, knowledge comes from experiences that change through our lifetime, and those experiences were brought to us by our five senses which I consider to be a “baby” step of knowledge. We see that through experiments and research we are able to study that even babies have instincts, to survive, and from those instincts we evolved. Humans were not born with the ability to known what a for example, piano sounds like by reading a textbook without anyone explaining it or actually play (touching keys etc) of a piano.

To the philosopher that I agree with, Kant, there are many ideas that Kant shares about his theory of knowledge. But one thing that made me realize that Kant is the answer to my final, is when he says that there are two kinds of knowledge..

1) Knowledge is mostly derived from experience

2) Part of our knowledge isn’t derived from experience

I think that the two point stood out to me is that I too believe that, but I lean more to the empiricist side. It makes sense to me that through instincts which we are born with we are able to use them and develop from them, we are able to know that we have the ability to walk or move, and through watching others walk and age we later grain the knowledge of knowing how to work. I think when Kant say that we have part of our knowledge isn’t from experience he is saying that instincts (senses) are born within, but Kant’s theory of knowledge changes through out. Kant’s work made me realize that even famous af philosophers believe that there can be two different kinds of knowledge in our world, and that their views on knowledge can change.

Kant (Katherine’s man)



Captivity aint cool

From movies to the news many have talked about what zoos and aquariums are really like for animals. its movie like Blackfish that really open eyes of those who watch it, the movie talks about how orcas self harm because they don’t get enough exercise, food and space. It then goes in-depth about the death of orcas that were in Sea World, and how they were shipped from one country to another. If you haven’t watched it I proudly suggest you too, because it’s an eye-opening movie that would help you understand more about animal in captivity.

Explore Gram – Boycott Aquariums

Premise 1) Some animals need to be in the wild to live a healthy life

Premise 2) Zoo and aquariums keep animal in captivity
Conclusion: Therefore all wild animal in zoos and aquariums tend to live an unhealthy life
First thing first, what is a healthy life style to me? A healthy lifestyle is the same for both animals and humans, it includes getting the sleep we need, exercise, eating right and a good mind set.
Premise 1: It is true, most animals are used to living in the wild and that if they are being kept in a smaller space they are more likely to change. Wild animals like tiger, polar bears, and elephants are used to roaming the wild and getting their exercise, they also searched for their own food which makes them strong (senses). A healthy life consist of have a healthy mind set, body and living style (exercise and such).
Premise 2: Is also true because most zoo and aquariums do keep their animals in captivity, where they are sometimes isolated (socially too). Some zoos and aquariums like Sea World are said to have animal rehab programs, where they take sick or hurt animals and nurse them back and put out into the wild. But sometimes they don’t release them, rather keep them in captivity or “sell” them to another zoo or aquarium.
Conclusion: Many animals that are kept in zoos and aquariums are neglected and isolated, most animals that are in captivity is found to be socially awkward, depressed, stressed and have other abnormal symptoms. When they are in a small space they don’t get the exercise they need, for example orcas swim up to 100 miles per day, but in captivity they swim a few laps around the tank or just float. Most animals are usually feed each day and performance animals are fed when they do tricks right (practices and shows), doing that it stops animals to hunt their food which lowers their brain usage making them lazy and depressed.
Predators are now being kept in small spaces and that they later develop self harming behaviour, that were rarely seen in the wild.
  • Elephants swaying back and froth
  • Birds plucking out their own feather
These signs were not only in zoos but in public aquariums too, a study by Captive Animals’ Protection Society found that about 90% of those animas have shown a neurotic behaviour.
  • Orcas hitting their head against the wall
Zoos and Aquariums have their pros and cons (mainly more cons) some do support animals in need of care but most don’t. A lot of animal advocate website like Peta and Born Free have talked what we need to do to prevent more animals being breed (since its dangerous and irresponsible), and to stop zoos and such, from bring more wild animals in captivity. Animals should be in the wild where they are free to roam, search for their own food and not have to perform shows. It’s important to know what they (zoos and such) are and how it affects us as humans. I hope that my presentation has given you more insight (if not, sorry) and help you form a new perspective on zoos and aquariums. To me it’s important to know where you are visiting and what it is actually like for animals, and to know that zoos, etc. are more than just a cute place for a date or fun but its rather more than.
Validity: It is valid because the conclusion that is reached comes from the two premises.
Soundness: Soundness is when all your premise is true and that it s valid, which is in this case. Both more premise leads to my conclusion and is backed up with information.


Reality Check 101

Another philosophical question another stumped Rosa. As I sit in my bed, sick and tired, I decided to play some music and get into a flow. The song Hard to Face Realty came on, and a though popped into my head. As the song played, so did my thoughts the though of me still not facing my reality… to me my “reality” is going to university, getting a house, being married and having kids before I’m old(25). But the truth is reality isn’t going to be how we planned it to be, and thats what I find myself struggling to take in. I plan to go in to Psychology when I graduate taking classes at University of Toronto, after getting a masters or PH.D then finding a steady job. But who am I kidding life isn’t that easy and theres to much road bumps.

As I think back to the second day of school, my reality was told to me when I was crying (yes I cried on the second day of school). I was going to my counsellors’ that day to talk to them about taking courses I needed for university, and no surprise there I was shut down before I could even explain. After begging for 5 minutes the only course they let me switch into was Math 12, which was at least something. But for me to take the course I needed to drop Law, a class I was looking forward to since last year, and thats when all my stress and emotion hit me. I was balling my eyes out and shaking since I didn’t want to drop Law for Math, and the fact that I have now one less grade 12 course for university. Which meant there’s a lower chance for me to get in to UofT, and thats when the counsellor looked me saying along the lines of “do you have a plan b?”. I knew it meant going to collage for 2 years before university but the fact of going to collage made me think how it’s going to slow down my timeline, and that in my “reality” there wasn’t a plan B it was always work harder for plan A.

Now looking back I find myself being the person in the Plato’s cave looking at the shadows, where my reality felt real to me and that it was planned to stay. And the truth is I’m still not complete outside the cave, I’m still inside looking at the shadows once in while trying to believe that my “reality” is really that easy. I’m in the cave but I know theres something outside of it to be explore and such but for now I just choice to peak outside once in a while. The reality of me not being to reach my goals, scare the living day light out of me. If I want to really to face my reality it’s coming to know that I might have to go with plan B, and that it takes time to accept the truth.





Rosa’s somewhat understanding of Philosophy (in words)

What does philosophy mean? I don’t f**king know, as of the moment, but with the little I do know philosophy is talking about the inevitable and unanswerable questions. It’s asking questions like “What does life really mean?” or “ Do we really have a choice.” But now that I am actually taking the course, sitting in class, I find myself knowing more each day, like how there is more to philosophy. That questions and such are just a small part of it, where philosophy is the ocean and there are so much for us to explore and learn. I don’t know much about it now, but I hope that would change.

“Courage is knowing what not to fear” – Plato

We were assigned an essay type of reading in the first week, where we had to highlight interesting or agreeable parts in it. The essay “Talk with Me” made me realize something, that if I wanted to exceed in the class it was to share my opinions and thoughts. Nigel Warburton wrote how the greatest philosophers isolated themselves to gather great ideas, but they were rather “misleading”. And this is where I find interesting, because that many of them were later found talking to other philosophers, or their imaginations. It’s interesting because it leans a little towards the psychological side of philosophy, yes philosophy and psychology is a “sibling subject,” according to Jbernal philosophers wonder how ones mind is or why they think that, and it’s because theirs psychology there to make us think that. Bring back to the essay knowing that even the great, needed someone to bounce their ideas off and challenge them is rather a big part of life, and to becoming better. Another thing that he wrote which I complete agree on is that when talking, its important to make sure we change the way we get information across to different audience. I relate to this in class since I find myself sitting there getting the first half, or parts of what they’re saying because the way they present themselves isn’t suited for me. But even though I don’t understand everything, the little I do understand is what keeps me from not dropping the class.

“It began with a sense of mystery, wonder, and confusion, and the powerful desire…” – Nigel Warburton

In conclusion I do find myself seating in class in confusion more than any other classes, like math, and even with this essay “blog” I’m still not sure if I’m doing this right but that’s the beauty of philosophy there isn’t a right or wrong. At the end of the semester it would be nice to know that I’ve changed, and like I said to not be scared to share my opinions or get intimidated by others judgements or their own opinions.

Here’s to a good semester.

wis philosophy?

what is philosophy?