Talons Philosophy

An Open Online Highschool Philosophy Course


Cultural Systems: Flaws and Virtues

Cultural Manifests, they are like the unifying purpose of a group, the nails, screws, bolts and washers holding a desk together, or the interworking gears of clockwork slowly ticking by. At first glance, a cultural manifest means nothing, it’s background noise; like the Jazz Mr. Jackson uses in philosophy to set the mood for discussion. Trying to examine a cultural manifest is like a fish trying to examine the water through which it swims (as we have oft referred to in class).

The properties of a cultural manifest are what drives its society to progress. If they weren’t hidden, who would follow them? Would you prefer to listen to the underlying message in your favourite song, or the nagging authority of a guardian? We ought to listen to the guardian wishing us well, but we want to listen to our favourite song. A cultural manifest is often like your favourite song; it influences you through nuance and subtlety and can transmit messages so deep and so condensed that it would be nearly impossible to find all the influences and motives behind them.


  • That is not to say that we are controlled and limited by cultural manifests, rather it is to say, like music, it can influence us in our decisions.
  • To further clarify, cultural manifests are not the only mechanisms that influence decision making.
  • Where the cultural manifest influences people with little or no variation, is where one of the many possible central ideals exist.

As for the next few sections, they will be choice based and they will be numbered and listed below so that you may choose what to read.

  1. Defining a Cultural Manifest, its Origins, and its Function
  2. Rawls’ Influence (basic summary)
  3. Kant’s Influence (basic summary)
  4. Mill’s Influence (basic summary)
  5. Aristotle and Dale Carnegie, Why The Cultural Manifest is so Effective
  6. Ethical Issues
  7. My Own Personal Cultural Manifest

1. Pertaining to the clockwork example mentioned earlier, a cultural manifest is much like a mass of clockwork. The main difference being that all the gears are tiny and may have nearly invisible effects on gears hundreds of meters away from them. The clockwork can be jammed by rocks in which case catastrophic events can occur. Gears can be replaced and the clockwork can continue functioning again, but it will take decades even centuries to undo the damage done by those rocks. Furthermore, someone who has analyzed and studied the mechanisms in the clockwork, knows how to create purpose from it, knows how to alter its varying functions and knows how to manipulate the clockwork to their ideals.

A cultural manifest is much the same, it has no single goal or purpose, rather it is an asymmetric mash of powerful and incentive-based concepts. And whenever the group under this cultural manifest is put through a catastrophic event, the manifest changes, it adapts to the current circumstances and the emotions which are mixed within it. This can distort and alter its previous functionality and cause deficiencies within the system. One who can manipulate cultural manifests can convince almost anyone immersed in that one’s manifest that the ideals which are upheld by that manifest are just and right.

If we are to examine to communisms’ modifications in Russia, we can clearly see that this idea/concept was placed into Russia’s construct/manifest of nationhood. When an idea or concept is placed into a culture/symbol, it influences everyone immersed within that system. Much the same occurred in Germany during the Nazi party’s reign. If you were to ask many of the Germans most deeply immersed into the concept the Adolf Hitler had created, they would have done anything for him. That is not to say that cultural manifests are absolutely terrible; there are of course many misuses of these constructs and there examples were they are extremely functional. For example, Gandhi’s use of civil disobedience to alter the current cultural manifest and therefore causing a revolution in India. The complex clockwork that is a cultural manifest is difficult to influence, but once it has been changed, the spread of the alteration is silent and unexpected and soon the entire system has changed. To conclude a cultural manifest is a construct of concepts/ideas that influences societies and groups.

2. If Rawls were to create a portion of a cultural manifest, he would ensure that several concepts were ticking in its construct. Rawls does not see moral desert in a society, rather he argues that people should use their talents to better society. If the talents in a particular person are not required, then they are simply not needed and therefore that person must harness talents that are needed in order to function in society. Additionally, Rawls would allow income disparity on the condition that those on the lowest economic level are aided equally by the income disparity. Furthermore, the cultural manifest would influence early generations into thinking that their skills are needed for society in order for it to function. Therefore, not discriminating based on genetic traits, working conditions, and other “arbitrary” traits that are randomly assigned, behind the veil of ignorance.

3. In Kant’s cultural manifest we find a world where no human can be used as a means. Any entity capable of rational thought is not to be regarded as a means, rather they are ends. Additionally, anytime an entity is used as means, the action must first be tested as a universal law. This means that if everyone in the sphere of existence were to preform this action, there would be no resulting disparity. In other words, if I were to consider borrowing an excessive amount of money for personal gain, I would first wonder what would happen if everybody were to do the same. I would realize (hopefully) that if everyone borrowed an excessive amount of money then there would be no longer any money left in the bank for better purposes, there would be no more money in the bank, and there would massive amounts of household debt which could result in an economic recession. Therefore this action is refuted by universal law and does not fit the categorical imperative. In this society, there is a fairly dogmatic upbringing, in the sense that, one must always follow the categorical imperative and no other reason as it may mislead them.

4. Mill has interesting world where the ends always justify the means. A place where, as long as the ends results in the greatest amount of happiness, the greatest atrocities and the greatest achievements of mankind can occur. You can justify any action, whether requiring personal sacrifice, or populace sacrifice. The main upbringing would involve the eduction of long-term/short-term utils and the comparison of these utils with others. Through this reasoning a person could construct their own ethical decisions and therefore logically come to a conclusion.

5.Who is Dale Carnegie? He was a prominent and persistent admirer of Abraham Lincoln and studied Lincoln’s history throughout his life. He is the author of the best-selling 70 year old book called “How to win friends and influence people.” An unfortunate title for the book as all of the methods would coincide with the categorical imperative. Additionally the book is light-hearted and humorous despite its philosophical depth into human nature.

As for Aristotle, he is a well known and cited greek philosopher, and in this post he is going to bring a different aspect other than utilitarianism, the categorical imperative, or the difference principle to the table. Aristotle shines upon teleological reasoning. A telos, goal or purpose is what this system is based upon. In order to analyze a situation, one must first identify the telos of the climate. Say perhaps that we were to identify who to give the best construction tools. First we would have to discuss the purpose of this construction tools. In this case (I would assume) that the purpose of those tools is to build, and therefore, those tools should be given to the best builders. However, there is a problem with teleological reasoning; sometimes, everybody cannot agree on the purpose of a particular situation. The purpose is always up for debate and this can cause massive delays in decision making.

What does Carnegie have to do with all of us? Dale Carnegie points out a very important part of human nature, and gives you the tools to control that characteristic. He does not teach you to alter the personalities of others, or how to change the thoughts of others, rather he gives you the tools to change yourself.





Democracy’s Pillar of Support – Greg and Stephanie

“Democracy means a system of government in which all the people of a country can vote to elect their representatives. Media came into existence in 1780 with the introduction of a newspaper namely The Bengal Gazette and since then it has matured leaps and bounds. It has been playing a very important role in shaping human minds.” 

Media plays a crucial role in shaping a healthy democracy. “Media is the backbone of every democracy.” Media makes us aware of various social, political and economical activities happening around the world. It’s like a mirror, which shows us the bare truth and harsh realities of life.  It has undoubtedly evolved and become more active over the years through magazines, television, and even some cartoons! It is the media only who reminds politicians about their crooked promises at the time of elections. News channels produce excessive coverage during elections to help people in electing the right person to the power. This reminder compels politicians to keep their promises so that they can remain in power.

The media also exposes loopholes in the democratic system, which ultimately helps government in filling the vacuums of those loopholes and making a system more accountable, responsive and citizen-friendly. A democracy without media is like a vehicle without wheels.

In the age of technology, we are bombarded with mass amounts of information. Every single information is accessible with just a click of a mouse away. The perfect blend of technology and human resources has not left a single stone un-turned in corruption within politics and society.

The impact of media is really noteworthy. Excessive coverage or hype of sensitive news has led to riots at times. The illiterates are more prone to provocations than the literates. Constant repetition of the news, especially sensational news, leads to a lack of interest. For instance, in the Dhananjoy Chatterjee case, the overloaded hype led to death of quite a few children who imitated the hanging procedure which was repeatedly shown in most of the T.V. news channels. There is an abundance of such negative impacts. Media should take utmost care in airing or publishing such sensational news.

Commercialization has created a stiff competition in media. In order to outdo each other print, media has often gone one step further in publishing articles and covering stories, for example relationships.  Media experts say this is one of the means of attracting readers who are glued to T.V. news channels, and has been deemed as “cheap journalism”.

No one is perfect in this world, and the media is no exception. Not trying to bash the media, but there is still a ton of room for improvement. Media is like a watchdog in a democracy that keeps the government active. From being just an informer it has become a critical part of our daily lives. With the passage of time media has become a more matured and a more responsible entity. The present media revolution has helped people in making an informed decisions and this has led to beginning of a new era in a democracy.